Castel Robert (1991), De l'indigence à l'exclusion, la désaffiliation, in J.Donzelot Face à l'exclusion, le modèle français, Editions Esprit.

Castells Manuel (1996) The rise of the network society, Blackwell Publishers.

Castells Manuel (1997), The power of identity, Blackwell Publishers.

Castells Manuel (1998) End of Millennium, Blackwell Publishers.

Council of Europe (1997), Youth in the Information Society, Council of Europe Publishing.

European Commission (1997), Building the European Information Society for us all, Final policy report of the high-level expert group, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

European Commission (2000), Strategies for jobs in the Information Society, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Fukuyama F (1992) The End of History and the Last Man, Penguin Books.

Hammersley M. (1992) What’s wrong with ethnography? Methodological Explorations, Routledge.

Kumar krishan (1995) Form post-industrial to post-modern society, Blackwell Publishers.

Kumar Ranjit (1999), research methodology, Sage.

Le Monde Economie,January 9th 2001 edition."La révolution numérique gommera-t-elle les inégalités?" (Will the digital revolution erase inequalities?).

Lenoir R. (1974), Les exclus : un français sur dix, le seuil

Macess (2000) Research methods Course handout

Maxwell Joseph (1996) qualitative research design: an interactive method, Sage publications.

May Tim (1997) Social research, issues, methods and process, Open University Press.

Milne C., Creighton S. (2000) Universal community access, service: access for all to Internet services at community level. , Council of Europe Publishing

Paugam serge (1991), La disqualification sociale. Essai sur une nouvelle pauvreté, Presses Universitaires Françaises

Pugh R, Gould N (2000) Globalisation, social work and social welfare in European Journal of Social Work Vol 3 No 2, oxford University Press.

Web sites All active and accessible on August 14th 2001 at 10 P.M.

ABDI (2000) "Réinsertion virtuelle, mais bien réelle"

BMF Gallup Media (2001) :

Bridges.Org (2001) "Spanning the Digital Divide, understanding and tackling the issues":

Bus internet (2001) Conseil General de Seine Maritime

Capurro (2000) "Ethics and the information in the Digital Age"

Cambremer - Point Info 14

CIADT (2001) Comité interministériel d'aménagement et de développement du territoire

Dot Force report (2001) "Digital Opportunities for All: Meeting the Challenge"

ECEI (2001)"Enterprises back the development of information society with 250 million kroons"

ESIS (2000) "Public strategies for the IS of the Member States of the EU"

ESIS (2001) European Survey of Information Society:

Estonian Government (1998) "Principles of Estonian Information Policy"

Estonian Government (2000) Implementation Plan for the Estonian Information Policy

European Commission (1) (2001) eEurope 2002 "Impact and priorities"

European Commission (2) (2001) e-inclusion draft report  

European Union (1999) "eEurope"

European Union (2000) "eEurope 2002 "an Information Society for all"

European Union (2001) eEurope + 2003

French Government, (2000) 3ème Comité interministériel pour la société de l'information

Guillotin (2001) The Digital Divide and the Information Society

Hewlett-Packard (2000) "e-Inclusion and diversity"

KülaTee (2000)

Left (2001) "Estonia set for online elections" in Guardian unlimited 28/03/2001,7369,464577,00.html.

McCluskey (1997)"Internet: a community tool in Africa"

Meier (2001) "Estonia’s Tiger Leap to Technology’’

Microsoft (1999) "A Digital Divide"

Nua Internet surveys (2001)

Number of Internet users in the world:

OECD report "Understanding the Digital Divide":

OECD (2001) "Digital Opportunities for Poverty Reduction"

OEF, Open Estonian Foundation http//

OITP (2000) What is the Digital Divide


Social Centre (1999) " Chantier d’insertion multimédia"

TNS Interactive Report (2001):

UNDP (1999) "The Estonian Tiger Leap into the 21st Century"

UNDP (2001) Human Development report 2001:

UNESCO (2000) "UN calls on rich countries to help bridging digital divide"

UNESCO (2001) Observatory of the Information Society

Val de Loir (2001)

Whatis?com (1999) Digital Divide,289893,sid9_gci214062,00.html

World bank (2000) "Poverty in age of Globalisation"

Wyatt, (1999) "They came, they surfed, they went back to the beach: why some people stop using the internet ":

Zonis (2000) "Digitising Globalisation":$297


ANNEX I People interviewed

Estonia all visits occurred between July16th and 25th 2001

M. Kristjan REBANE (
Currently working at the Estonian IT foundation, which includes the new IT college where I met him in Tallinn. He was before the project manager of the Public Internet Access Points for The Open Estonian Foundation.

Mrs. Meeli VESKUS (
Working at the Estonian Ministry of Culture, she is in charge of the national program of internetization of all libraries in the country.

M. Alar Ehandi (
Project manager of the look @ world project. Met at Hansapank headquarters in Tallinn, biggest bank company in Estonia and starter of the project.

M. Tarmo Kalvet (
Currently working as analyst for the ARCHIMEDES foundation in Tartu where I met him. He was also involved in the evaluation of Estonian Information Society for the European Commission (part of the European Survey on Information Society). He also wrote the first evaluation report on the PIAP in 1999 for the OEF and the state chancellery. He finally helped to establish some PIAPs in southern Estonia, including the one I visited with him.


Mr Alexis Braud  (
Director of the Social centre of "la Chartre sur Le Loir" and instigator of the new technologies projects there.

Mrs. Le Flem
Responsible of the insertion program on Information Technologies of the Social Centre.

Miss Céline Desbois (
Working as Multimedia trainer at the Internet bus from Seine Maritime. Met twice in June and July

Annex II : Draft common list of basic public services

For eGovernment, the following two indicators are the basis for benchmarking.

    • Percentage of basic public services available online,
    • Use of online public services by the public.

To make these indicators operational, Member States have agreed to a common list of 20 basic public services, 12 for citizens, and 8 for businesses. Progress in bringing these services online will be measured using a four-stage framework: 1 posting of information online; 2 one-way interaction; 3 two-way interaction; and, 4 full online transactions including delivery and payment. Data will be collected in surveys twice a year.

Public Services for Citizens


Income taxes: declaration, notification of assessment


Job search services by labour offices


Social security contributions (3 out of the following 4):

  • Unemployment benefits
  • Family allowances
  • Medical costs (reimbursement or direct settlement)
  • Student grants


Personal documents (passport and driver's licence)


Car registration (new, used and imported cars)


Application for building permission


Declaration to the police (e.g. in case of theft)


Public libraries (availability of catalogues, search tools)


Certificates (birth, marriage): request and delivery


Enrolment in higher education / university


Announcement of moving (change of address)


Health related services (e.g.interactive advice on the availability of services in different hospitals; appointments for hospitals.)

Public Services for Businesses


Social contribution for employees


Corporation tax: declaration, notification


VAT: declaration, notification


Registration of a new company


Submission of data to statistical offices


Customs declarations


Environment-related permits (incl. reporting)


public procurement